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Scientific-practical session at IV InterEcoForum 2015
The second day of the IV InterEcoForum 2015 has been devoted to the consideration and discussion of existing and potential innovative technologies in agriculture.
Vasily Zakharyashchev has opened the session with the presentation on the social and economic consequences of the transformation of gardening companies in Russia in the rural settlement municipalities. He said that in Russia today there are 90 thousand gardening companies, which produce 52 percent of food products, but do not have the status of official rural settlements, and, therefore, they do not receive investment, do not have modern infrastructure, social facilities such as health centers. Besides, there is a problem connecting to the energy networks, which prohibitively financially for most of the owners of summer cottages. Interaction with the Spanish counterparts, according to the speaker, could help the country to organize a civilized cooperation of agricultural producers in the form of wholesale and logistic centers.
The real experience of successful use of precision agriculture technology has shared the head of experimental field station of the Russian State Agrarian University Egor Berezovsky. In 2007, as part of an innovative educational project were assembled latest developments used in the world, in order to assess the practical benefits which can bring precision farming technology. This method is the use of automated and geographic information systems and multivariate models that take into account the unequal agro-climatic conditions in the field, with better use of fertilizers and pesticides and to minimize the use of agrochemicals. The method involves the use of special equipment, professional system of GPS navigation, systems of scan plants or unmanned aerial vehicles and related software.
Roman Gurov, executive director of the Union of organic farming, spoke about the potential of organic agriculture in Russia to feed not only themselves, but also the world. The global market for organic farming is estimated at 100 billion dollars. However, in Russia there is still no legal framework defining what organic farming is. This leads, on the one hand to the fact that the Russian producer of organic is not presented at the world markets, on the other - to the existence in the country a huge number of pseudo organic goods. In Russia, about 100 farms engaged in organic farming, while in Spain they are 32.000. If Russia starts to invest in organic farming, it will be able in 2050 to win 5-10% of the world market of organic products, which is about $ 10 billion revenue. The speaker mentioned that in July 2015 Government adopted standard defining what organic production is, and hopes that in autumn will be adopted a law on organic farming, which will give impetus to the development of certification systems.
Ivan Kuzmin, President of production and scientific association of CIS "Seeds", gave a presentation on advanced technologies in seeds processing, noting the importance of maintaining a single selection and production space of the CIS to maintain the capacity of agriculture. Modern technologies of preparation of seeds should be aimed at minimizing the injury to the seed and the preservation of their genetic characteristics.
On the modern environmentally based approaches to the use of small reservoirs to produce high-quality food and technical products said PhD, Associate Professor of Department for International complex problems of natural resources and the environment of MGIMO (University) Andrey Nikiforov. According to the FAO report, a special role in ensuring food start to play small ponds that can produce a variety of products. In Russia they are called multi-purpose reservoirs and their use is still underdeveloped, because for a long time priority was given to development of large reservoirs and growing mass of fish species. Small ponds are of interest not only for fish farming, but also as objects of recreational fisheries and tourism, the use and cultivation of ecologically pure food, vegetable, industrial raw materials. In addition, the integrated use of water reservoirs not only provides human food and materials, but also contributes to their conservation, which is beneficial to the local climate, the hydrological regime of soil, biodiversity.
David Feijoo Escudero, a member of the Economic and Commercial Section at the Embassy of Spain in the Russian Federation in its report highlighted those areas in which Spain could be useful for the creation of the modern Russian agriculture. Firstly, it is creation a modern infrastructure for logistics and wholesale distribution of food. Secondly, the creation of co-operatives to engage in the market of goods produced by private farms. The third area concerns the Spanish modern technologies used in the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture, production of canned foods, dairy products, wine. However, Russian companies should take into account the fact that the production of modern technology in Spain is mainly by small companies with flexible cost structures, but lack of the necessary amount of funds needed for the organization of joint Spanish-Russian enterprises. Therefore, according to the speaker, the best option for collaboration would be the export of technology.
Nikolay Melnyk, president of "Vetbioprom" made a presentation on biosecurity and veterinary drugs used to fight infections in animals. He highlighted several issues related to the smooth supply of components for the production of biological products in the Russian conditions of sanctions, and, accordingly, with the objectives of import substitution.
The member of the Institute of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences Eugenia Chikurova told about the experiment dedicated to explore the possibility of detention and raising cattle in a southern taiga and the impact of grazing on the vegetation of the forest.
Academician Anatoly Samuilenko in his report talked about the problems of the biological industry in terms of increasing mutational load on living organisms and decrease the effectiveness of vaccines.
At the end of the business part of the Forum, participants were able to communicate in an informal atmosphere.